List of Figures
Douglas L. Airhart & Guy Zimmerman III

Web Site Guide: [Home]


Right Tree / Right Place

Selecting Trees

Transplanting Trees

Mulching & Staking

Summary Diagram 

Pruning Trees

Topping Hurts!

Protecting Trees

Tree Root Myths

Pine Bark Beetles

Live Christmas Trees


List of Figures

List of Video Vignettes

Related Links



    List of Figures & Tables: 

1-1. Severe mower blight (TLC photo).

2-1. Examples of various tree sizes (NADF).

2-2. Example of better tree placement (NADF).

2-3. Example of poor tree placement (NADF).

2-4. Trees require large root zones (NADF).

3-1. Example of balled & burlapped and containerized trees (Appleton).

3-2A. Excavating to find the trunk flare (TLC photo).

3-2B. Example of good trunk flare & radiating root system (TLC photo).

3-2C. Root excavation to expose trunk flare (TLC photo).

3-3. Healthy trees have obviously exposed trunk flares (TLC photo).

3-4. Inspecting a containerized tree (TLC photo).

3-5. Potential girdling roots (Appleton).

3-6. Trunk flare and taper (NADF).

3-7. Example of central leader (TLC photo) .

3-8. Example of poor branch spacing (TLC photo).

3-9. Selection criteria (Appleton).

3-10a. Selection

3-10b. Selection criteria (TLC photo).

4-0. Deep watering (NADF).

4-1. Trunk flare not visible (Appleton).

4-1a. Trunk flare not visible (TLC photo)

4-1b. Girdling root (TLC photo).

4-2. Excavated trunk suckers (TLC photo).

4-3a. Planted too deep (TLC photo).

4-3b. Replanted (TLC photo).

4-3c. Trunk flare planted too deep (TLC photo).

4-3d. Possible solution for deep trunk flares (NADF).

4-4. Proper planting depth (Watson).

4-5. Tree Trunk Burlap (TLC photo)..

5-1. Example mulches (Appleton).

5-2. Root growth under mulched surface vs. grass (Watson).

5-3. Mulch volcano excavated to expose buried trunk (TLC photo).

5-4. Girdling roots on young tree (Appleton).

5-5. Girdling roots on mature tree (Appleton).

5-6. Severe girdling (TLC photo).

5-7. Three possible staking methods (Watson).

6-1. Summary planting, mulching and staking diagram (Watson). 

6-2. Example of proper hole (Appleton).

6-3. Alternate planting diagram for poorly drained soils (Birmingham Green).

6-4. Typical (but incorrect) landscape architect specifications (Ingels appendix).

6-5. Another incorrect example diagram (Ingels).

6-6. Another incorrect example diagram (Hannebaum).

6-7. What is wrong with this picture (hidden) (Hannebaum).

7-1. Example of root loss during harvesting (Appleton).

7-2. Expanded branch and trunk collar (Shigo).

7-3. Clippers (TLC photo).

7-4. Hand pruners (TLC photo).

7-5. Loppers (TLC photo).

7-6. Tree saws (TLC photo).

7-7. Pole pruners and saws (TLC photo).

7-8. Pruning hardwoods to protect branch collars (NADF).

7-9. Pruning conifers to protect branch collars (NADF).

7-10. Results of improper pruning cuts (Shigo).

7-11. Pruning temporary branches (NADF).

7-12. Mulching to the drip line (TLC photo).

7-13. Double leaders (NADF).

7-14. Pruning to remove water sprouts and trunk suckers (NADF).

7-15. Proper pruning to a lateral branch (Shigo).

7-16. Pruning to improve branch spacing (NADF).

7-17. Sequence of proper pruning (NADF).

7-18. Pruning for structure, shape & canopy reduction (NADF).

7-19. Parts of an ideal tree (Costello).

7-20. Coarse, medium & fine pruning examples (NADF).

8-1. Topping trees hurts! (NADF).

8-2. Proper height reduction of a mature tree (NADF).

8-3. Tree topping example (Shigo).

8-4. Proper height reduction of a mature tree (NADF).

9-1. How a tree grows (Ryan).

9-2. Example of mature root growth & spread (Appleton).

9-3. Roots growing at shallow depths in clay soils (TLC photo).

9-4a. Trenching damage vs. tunneling (NADF).

9-4b. Tunneling under drip line (NADF).

9-5. Backhoe damage to limbs (TLC photo).

9-6a. Sturdy wooden barrier (TLC photo).

9-6b. Metal pole / welded wire fence barrier (TLC photo).

9-6c. Close up welded wire fence barrier TLC Photo).

9-7. Wood chip buffer over tree roots (TLC Photo).

9-7a. Yellow flag designation (1) (TLC photo).

9-7b. Yellow flag designation (2) (TLC photo).

9-8. Backhoe damage to scaffold branches (TLC photo).

9-8a. Block tree well distant (TLC photo).

9.8b. Block tree well. (TLC photo).

9-8c. Partial tree well (NADF).

9-8d. Vertical Mulching (NADF).

9-9. Typical symptoms of decline (TLC Photo).

9-10. Typical die back of distressed trees (TLC Photo).

9-11. Mature tree showing initial decline (TLC Photo).

9-12. Mature tree dieback (TLC photo).

10-1. Trenching damage (TLC photo).

10-2. Preventing damage (TLC photo).

11-1. Pine pitch tubes (TLC photo).

12-1. Adequate root mass for tree (TLC photo).

13-1. Web site developers (TLC photo).

13-2. Grant grunt work (TLC photo).


 Table 4-1. (hidden) 10 reasons you should plant trees (NADF).

Table 4-2. Trees recommended for planting in the spring (Watson).

Table 6-1. Final transplanting inspection checklist (Watson)

Purpose    Right Tree / Right Place    Selecting Trees    Transplanting Trees    Mulching & Staking    Summary Diagram     Pruning Trees    Topping Hurts!      Protecting Trees     Tree Root Myths     Pine Bark Beetles     Live Christmas Trees     Glossary     List of Figures    List of Video Vignettes    Related Links     Bibliography is maintained by: Douglas Airhart, Ph.D. Certified Arborist & Jeff Plant, Ph.D, Last Updated on: 07/11/03